It increased the powers of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and implemented some of the suggestions from the Packard Commissioncommissioned by President Reagan in Among other changes, Goldwater—Nichols streamlined the military chain of commandwhich now runs from the President through the Secretary of Defense directly to combatant commanders CCDRs, all four-star generals or In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet websitebypassing the service chiefs.
The service chiefs were assigned to an advisory role to the President and the Secretary of Defense as well as given the responsibility for training and equipping personnel for the unified combatant commands. It was signed into law by President Reagan on October 1, Crowe was the first Chairman to serve under this new legislation.
The Goldwater—Nichols Act was an attempt to fix problems caused by inter-service rivalrywhich had emerged during the Vietnam Warcontributed to the catastrophic failure of the Iranian hostage rescue mission inand which were still evident in the invasion of Grenada in Such problems existed as well in World War II, during which two independent lines of command flowed from the President, one through the Secretary of the Navy to naval forces, and the other through the Secretary of War to land and air forces.
Inthe military restructuring placed all military forces, including the newly independent Air Forceunder a single civilian Secretary of Defense. However, the United States military was still organized along lines of command that reported to their respective service chiefs Commandant of the Marine CorpsChiefs of Staff In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet website the Army and Air Forceand Chief of Naval Operations.
These service chiefs in turn made up the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Joint Chiefs of Staff elected a Chairman to communicate with the civilian government. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs in turn reported to the Secretary of Defensethe civilian head of the military. This system led to counter-productive In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet website rivalry. Peacetime activities such as procurement and creation of doctrineetc.
Additionally, wartime activities of each service were largely planned, executed, and evaluated independently. These practices resulted in division of effort and an inability to profit from economies of scaleand inhibited the development of modern warfare doctrine.
The formulation of the AirLand Battle doctrine in the late s and early s laid bare the difficulty of coordinating efforts among various service branches. AirLand Battle attempted to synthesize all of the capabilities of the service arms of the military into a single doctrine. The system envisioned ground, naval, air, and space based systems acting in concert to attack and defeat an opponent in depth.
The structure of the armed forces effectively blocked realization of this ideal. The US invasion of Grenada in further exposed the problems with the military command structure. Although the United States forces easily prevailed, its leaders expressed major concerns over both the inability of the different service branches to coordinate and communicate with each
In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet website, and the consequences of a lack of coordination if faced with a more threatening foe.
The Goldwater—Nichols Act brought sweeping changes to the way the U. Under the Goldwater—Nichols Act, military advice was centralized in the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs as opposed to the service chiefs. The Act also established the position of Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and simplified the chain of command. Additionally, the Act states that the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff cannot be representatives from the same service branch.
It increased the ability of the Chairman to direct overall strategy, but provided greater command authority to "unified" and "specified" field commanders. According to the Act, the Chairman may not exercise military command over the Joint Chiefs of Staff or any of the armed forces. Section b of the Act prescribes that "unless otherwise directed by the President, the chain of command to a unified or specified combatant command runs—.
Goldwater—Nichols changed the way In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet website services interact.
The services themselves "organize, train and equip" forces for use by the combatant commanders CCDRsand the service chiefs no longer exercise any operational control over their forces. Rather than reporting to a service chief operationally, the service component forces support the commander responsible for a specific function Special OperationsStrategicand Transportation or a geographic region of the globe NorthernCentralEuropeanPacificSouthernand Africa Commands.
The combatant commanders then field a force capable of employing AirLand Battle doctrine or its successors using all assets available to the integrated unified action plan, including the military, interagency organizations of the US Government such as USAID and the Department of State, and intelligence agencies.
The restructuring afforded a combination of effort, integrated planning, shared procurement, and a reduction or elimination of inter-service rivalry.
It also provided unity of command, conforming with leading military science. Individual services changed from relatively autonomous war-fighting entities into organizational and training units, responsible for acquisition, modernization, force-development, and readiness as a component of the integrated force.
Central Commandfor example, would be assigned air, ground, naval, Marine, and special operations assets to achieve its objectives, not the previously efficient method of individual services planning, supporting, and fighting the same war. This was successfully demonstrated during Operation Desert Storm in Another major effect of the Act is the way it has dramatically changed the personnel management of military officers.
Shared procurement allowed the various branches to share technological advances such as stealth and smart weapons quickly, and provided other ancillary benefits such as improved interoperability of radios and communications between units and members of different services. Joint implementation of new technology allowed for joint development of supporting doctrine. On October 24,Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld ordered that the functional and regional commanders be referred to not as " CINCs " but as "combatant commanders" when applied to "unified" regional organizations e.
Rumsfeld said the term "CINC" was inappropriate, notwithstanding its employment for many decades, because under the United States Constitution, the President is the Nation's only commander-in-chief. His decision was described as intending to clarify and strengthen the military's subordination to civilian government.
On January 4,the Deputy Secretary of Defense issued a memorandum directing an internal review with the objective "to make recommendations for updates or adjustments to organizational relationships and authorities" based on 30 years of experience under Goldwater—Nichols.
From Wikipedia, In 1986 congress passed legislation mandating quizlet website free encyclopedia. Goldwater—Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of Long title To reorganize the Department of Defense and strengthen authority in the Department of Defense, to improve the military advice provided to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense, to place clear responsibility on the commanders of the unified and specified combatant commands for the accomplishment of missions assigned to those commands and ensure that the authority of those commanders is fully commensurate with that responsibility, to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and to contingency planning, to provide for more efficient use of defense resources, to improve joint officer management policies, otherwise to enhance the effectiveness of military operations and improve the management and administration of the Department of Defense, and for other purposes.
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