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Deadline for manuscript submissions: The only handicap of metals is Samuel kenzari ijl dating relatively higher density with respect to modern composites. It is possible to lighten metallic structures in three ways: Two leading research laboratories compose this Laboratory of Excellence within the Lorraine University: In this Special Issue, they report some of their Samuel kenzari ijl dating progress in different fields of metallurgy and mechanics of metallic materials.

There are articles in the three major fields of metallurgy; physical, chemical and Samuel kenzari ijl dating metallurgy. All scales are covered: Manuscript Submission Information Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.

Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal as soon as accepted and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract about words can be sent to the Samuel kenzari ijl dating Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere except conference proceedings papers.

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View options order results: Show export options Hide export options Select all. Export citation of selected articles as: MaterialsSamuel kenzari ijl dating 10; https: This paper addresses the modeling of the iron ore direct reduction process, a process likely to reduce CO 2 emissions from the steel industry.

The shaft furnace is divided into three sections reduction, transition, and coolingand the model is two-dimensional cylindrical geometry for the upper sections and conical geometry for Samuel kenzari ijl dating lower oneto correctly describe the lateral gas feed and cooling gas outlet.

This model relies on a detailed description of the main physical—chemical and thermal phenomena, using a multi-scale approach. The moving bed is assumed to be comprised of pellets of grains and crystallites. We also take into account eight heterogeneous and two homogeneous chemical reactions.

The local mass, energy, and momentum balances are numerically solved, using the finite volume method. This model was successfully validated by simulating Samuel kenzari ijl dating shaft furnaces of two direct reduction plants of different capacities. The calculated results reveal the detailed interior behavior of the shaft furnace operation. Eight different zones can be distinguished, according to their predominant thermal and reaction characteristics.

An important finding is the presence of a central zone of lesser temperature and Samuel kenzari ijl dating. Allen 1,2,3Laszlo S. Toth 3,4Andrew L. In crystalline materials, dislocations are three-dimensional lattice distortions that systematically distort twin interfaces that they encounter.

This results in dislocation dissociation events and changes in the atomic structure of the interface.

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The manner in which the interface distorts drive the product of the dissociation event, and consequently, the incident dislocation core and the magnitude and relative direction of the Burgers vector Samuel kenzari ijl dating these slip-twin interaction Samuel kenzari ijl dating. While twinning disconnections were found to promote twin propagation, the dislocations incorporated inside the twin are of considerable importance to hardening and damage initiation as they more significantly obstruct slip dislocations accommodating plasticity of the twins.

In this work, the dislocation transmutation event and its effect on hardening is captured using a dislocation density based hardening model contained in a visco-plastic self-consistent mean-field model. This is done by allowing the twins to increase their dislocation densities, not only by virtue of slip inside the twin, but also through dislocations that transmute from the parents as the twin volume fraction increases.

A correspondence matrix rule is used to determine the type of converted dislocations while tracking and parameterizing their evolution.

This hypothesis provides a modeling framework for capturing slip-twin interactions. The model is used to simulate the mechanical response of Samuel kenzari ijl dating Mg and provides a more physically based approach for modeling stress-strain behavior.

These Samuel kenzari ijl dating correspond to a state of active dislocation transmutation and a state of no transmutation, respectively. The stability of lath-like microstructures during low-temperature isothermal ageing was analyzed in a Fe5Ni0. On the contrary, a granularization process is triggered when microstructures contain a fraction of upper bainite.

The phenomenon affects in turn the mechanical properties. The final microstructures obtained after isothermal holding look like granular bainite, which raises some questions about the classification of bainite.

The lath structure has completely disappeared after this granularization process.

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Materials11 9; https: In this paper, the superelasticity effects of architected shape memory alloys SMAs are focused on by using a multiscale approach. Firstly, a parametric analysis at the cellular level with a series of representative volume elements RVEs is carried out to predict the relations between the void fraction, the total stiffness, the hysteresis effect and the mass of the SMAs.

The superelasticity effects of the architected SMAs are modeled by the thermomechanical constitutive model proposed by Chemisky et al.

Secondly, the structural responses of the architected SMAs are studied by the multilevel finite element method FE 2which uses the effective constitutive behavior of the RVE to represent the behavior of the macroscopic structure. This approach can truly couple the responses Samuel kenzari ijl dating both the RVE level and structural level by the real-time information interactions between two levels.

Through a three point bending test, it is observed that the structure inherits the strong nonlinear responses—both the hysteresis effect and the superelasticity—of the architected SMAs at the cellular level. Thus, this work could be referred to for optimizing the stiffness, the hysteresis effect and the mass of architected SMA structures and extended for possible advanced applications.

Forward modeling of diffraction peaks Samuel kenzari ijl dating a potential way to compare the results of theoretical mechanical simulations and experimental X-ray diffraction XRD data recorded during in situ Samuel kenzari ijl dating. As the input data are the strain or displacement field within a representative volume of the material containing dislocations, a computer-aided efficient and accurate method to generate these fields is necessary.

With this Samuel kenzari ijl dating, a current and promising numerical method is based on the use of the fast Fourier transform FFT -based method. Here, we propose several improvements: Then, we show the effect of these improvements on theoretical diffraction peaks. The red line is approximately equal to the phase expected for this displacement field. The black dots correspond to Samuel kenzari ijl dating voxels centers.

The red sub-voxels have a non-zero eigenstrain. The sum of these displacements is equal to the previous displacement field. This sum is equal to the previous sum. The voxelization artifacts are removed by the sub-voxel method described above. With this correction, the phase is almost continuous.

The high-temperature creep behavior of a rafted [] oriented AM1 Ni-based single crystal superalloy was investigated during in situ creep tests on synchrotrons. Experiments were performed at constant temperatures under variable applied stress in order to study the response plastic strain, load transfer to stress jumps. Each dot corresponds to a seven seconds diffraction peak recording.

The segment at the top interface red line later climbs within the interface to react with another interface dislocation red dashed line. Materials11 8; https: In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron source performed on a steel metal matrix Samuel kenzari ijl dating reinforced by TiC allows the evolutions of internal stresses during cooling to be followed thanks to the development of a new original experimental device a transportable radiation furnace with controlled rotation of the specimen.

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Using the device on a high-energy beamline during in situ thermal treatment, we were able to extract the evolution of the stress tensor components in all phases: Atom Probe Tomography APTTransmission Electron Microscopy TEMand 3D mechanical calculations in complex geometry and anisotropic strain fields were employed to study the role of minor elements in the precipitation process of silicon and chromium nitrides in nitrided Fe—Si and Fe—Cr alloys, respectively.

In nitrided Fe—Si alloys, an original sequence of Si 3 N 4 precipitation was highlighted. Al—N clusters form first and act as nucleation sites for amorphous Si 3 N 4 nitrides. This Samuel kenzari ijl dating example of particle-simulated nucleation opens a new way to control Si 3 N 4 precipitation in Fe—Si alloys.

In nitrided Fe—Cr alloys, both the presence of iron in chromium nitrides and excess Samuel kenzari ijl dating in the ferritic matrix are unquestionably proved.

Samuel kenzari ijl dating a certain part of the so-called excess nitrogen is Samuel kenzari ijl dating to be explained by the elastic accommodation of the misfit between nitride and the ferritic matrix. The presence of immobile excess nitrogen trapped at interfaces can be highly suspected.

The arrows indicate Al—N clusters. Al—N clusters, selected by 7 at. For clarity, only Si ions in the matrix are shown. CrN platelets appear in dark contrast. For clarity, the represented volume is restricted to a 2 nm thick slice.

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