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Pascal 36, Milan, Italy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Mucorales have been increasingly
Mucorales asexual reproduction as cause of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised subjects, particularly Mucorales asexual reproduction patients with haematological malignancies or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and in those under deferoxamine treatment or undergoing dialysis. The disease often leads to a fatal outcome, Mucorales asexual reproduction the pathogenesis of the infection is
Mucorales asexual reproduction poorly understood as well as the role of specific virulence determinants and the interaction with the host immune system.
Members of the order Mucorales asexual reproduction are responsible of almost all cases of invasive mucormycoses, the majority of the Mucorales asexual reproduction agents belonging to the Mucoraceae family. Mucorales are able to produce various proteins and metabolic products toxic to animals and humans, but the pathogenic role of these potential virulence factors is unknown.
The availability of free iron in plasma and tissues is believed to be crucial for the pathogenesis of these mycoses. Vascular and neurotropism are considered common pathogenic features of invasive mucormycoses.
The Mucoraleswhich is the core group of the traditional Zygomycota [ 1 — 3 ], have been recently reclassified into the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the
Mucorales asexual reproduction phylum of the kingdom Fungi [ 4 ]. This new classification does not include Zygomycota, because the authors consider the phylum polyphyletic, indeed the name zygomycosis, which encompassed infections caused by members of Mucorales and Entomophthoraleshas become obsolete [ 4 ].
The Mucorales are characterized by aseptate coenocytic hyaline hyphae, sexual reproduction with the formation of and asexual reproduction with nonmotile sporangiospores. They are ubiquitous in nature, being found in food, vegetation, and soil Mucorales asexual reproduction 1 — 3 ].
The majority of the invasive diseases are caused by genera of the Mucoraceae family, and the resulted disease is called mucormycosis [ 1 — 35 — 7 ]. Transmission occurs by inhalation of aerosolized spores, ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs, or through cutaneous exposure, the latter being the most important mode of acquisition of mucormycosis in immunocompetent hosts [ 6Mucorales asexual reproduction ].
Risk factors for invasive diseases include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, haematological malignancies, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, deferoxamine therapy, corticosteroid therapy, or other underlying conditions impairing the immune system [ 9 ]. Limited activity of some principal classes of antifungal drugs i. This Mucorales asexual reproduction, together with others published in this special issue, reviews the clinical spectrum of and risk factors for mucormycosis with particular emphasis on the role of fungal traits interacting with human host defences.
A few members of the Mucorales Table
Mucorales asexual reproduction are able to grow in human tissues causing a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. The entity and severity of the Mucorales asexual reproduction depends on the interaction between the fungus and the host immune defences [ 5711 ].
In their exhaustive review, Roden and coworkers analysed cases of documented infections caused by members of the former Zygomycota since [ 9 ]. More recently, cases of infections were collected in 13 European countries between and [ 12 ]. Although mucormycosis remains a highly fatal disease, its burden is still low, as well documented by Pagano and coworkers [ 13 ]. They were able to demonstrate that mucormycosis affected about 0. In immune-competent subjects, mucormycosis generally develops as a consequence of traumatic injuries, and the disease commonly involves skin even if possible dissemination from skin to contiguous organs can occur [ 911 ].
Mucormycosis can be classified in rhinocerebral, pulmonary and disseminated, abdominal-pelvic and gastric, and cutaneous or chronic subcutaneous diseases. Common features of rhinocerebral, pulmonary, and disseminated diseases include blood vessel invasion, hemorrhagic necrosis, thrombosis, and a rapid fatal outcome.
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is more often associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis than malignancies or deferoxamine therapy.
Inhaled spores colonize at first the upper turbinates and paranasal sinuses and cause sinusitis. Depending on the underlying disease, the fungus can rapidly invade the central nervous system, causing symptoms like an altered mental state, progression to coma, and death
Mucorales asexual reproduction a few days [ 1 — 35 — 11 ]. Pulmonary mucormycosis is commonly seen in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, solid organ or bone marrow transplantation, and diabetes but is Mucorales asexual reproduction reported also in apparently healthy subjects.
Disease manifestations vary from a localized nodular lesion to cavitary lesions and dissemination; in the latter case, massive hemoptysis generally occurs. Gastrointestinal disease is a rare manifestation
Mucorales asexual reproduction mucormycosis, and it is mainly associated with malnutrition in presence of predisposing factors, especially in children with amoebic colitis, typhoid, and pellagra [ 11 ]. In the most severe cases, the disease can be characterized by ulceration of the mucosa and invasion of blood vessels with subsequent production of necrotic ulcers, this form of the disease is fatal [ 311 ].
Primary cutaneous mucormycosis can involve the subcutaneous tissue as well as the fat, muscle and fascial layers [ 3 ]. Treatment of mucormycosis combines surgical intervention and antifungal therapy.
Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of Mucorales asexual reproduction for the therapy of mucormycosis. The in vitro susceptibility testing for amphotericin B gives a broad range of values according to the genus and the species.
With the exception of posaconazole, the azole show a limited in vitro activity against Mucoralesand the echinocandins have a limited activity against these fungi [ 14 ]. Studies of in vitro combination of posaconazole with amphotericin B showed synergistic effects against hyphae of some species [ 15 ]. In addition, combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B Mucorales asexual reproduction caspofungin or posaconazole and posaconazole with colony-stimulating factor has been successfully used in experimental infections [ 1016 — 18 ].
In humans, combination therapy liposomal amphotericin B plus echinocandins or posaconazole with or without iron chelation has been used as aggressive antifungal treatment following surgical resection of the damaged tissue [ 19 — 23 ].
Patients treated with combination of antifungal drugs had a better
Mucorales asexual reproduction outcome than those treated with amphotericin B alone [ 2021 ].
A promising therapeutic approach consists of the use of iron chelation. Although deferoxamine therapy is associated with a high risk to develop mucormycosis [ 235 — 79 — 1124 ], newer Mucorales asexual reproduction chelators deferiprone and deferasirox have not been associated with increased risk of mucormycosis and have Mucorales asexual reproduction used as therapeutic agents in cases of experimental mucormycosis [ 24 ].
According to Casadevall and Pirofski [ 25 ]: This concept is especially true if we consider opportunistic microorganisms such as fungi. Macrophages and neutrophils play the major role in immune defence against agents of mucormycosis. Prolonged neutropenia is thus the main risk factor for developing the disease. Moreover, therapeutic interventions i. Diabetes itself can impair the function of neutrophils contributing to the severity of the mucormycosis in patients with ketoacidosis [ 26 ].
An important protective factor against mucormycosis is the low concentration of free iron plasma and tissues. Many of the underlying diseases listed above as predisposing factors for developing
Mucorales asexual reproduction share an iron overload as a consequence of iron tissue burden, elevated serum transferring, or increased nontransferrin-bound iron [ 24 ]. Iron is essential for Mucorales either enhancing their growth and hyphal development in vitro or increasing their pathogenicity in vivo [ 27 ].
The same group [ 2729 ] was able to demonstrate that Mucorales use Mucorales asexual reproduction as a xeno-siderophore, being capable to detach iron from DFO in a very efficient manner.
More recently, other investigators confirmed the importance of iron in the pathogenicity of Mucorales by studying the expression of the FTR1 high-affinity iron permease of R. The authors were able to demonstrate the effect of gene disruption and gene silencing on R. Consistently, anti-Ftr1p antibodies protected mice from R. Angioinvasion with subsequent infarction of the surrounding tissue is uniformly present in all cases of severe disseminated mucormycosis [ 31 ].
Specific adhesion to endothelial cells and internalization of the fungus by the
Mucorales asexual reproduction cells are important for the pathogenic strategy of Mucorales [ 32 ].
More recently, Liu and coworkers [ 33 ] demonstrated that a novel host receptor the glucose-regulated protein 78 [GPR78] facilitates the invasion of human endothelial cells by Rhizopus oryzae. This study demonstrated that in the presence
Mucorales asexual reproduction high iron and glucose concentrations, such as in diabetic subjects, there is a direct relationship between an increased expression of GPR78 and an increased damage to endothelial cells in diabetic mice [ 33 ].
Involvement of the CNS is common in invasive Mucorales asexual reproduction, Mucorales are capable to gain access to the central nervous system CNS by local vessels invasion or direct extension from paranasal sinuses [ 1 — 3 — 11 ]. Another possible mechanism, involving a retrograde extension of the fungi Mucorales asexual reproduction CNS by Mucorales asexual reproduction of the nerves, was hypothesized by Frater and coworkers [ 31 ].
By evaluating the histologic features of 20 patients with invasive disease, they found a high percentage perineural invasion. A further fascinating hypothesis concerning the virulence of Mucoralesin particular of Rhizopus species—the most common etiological agents of disseminated mucormycosis—is a possible involvement of endosymbiotic bacteria in the pathogenesis of the disease [ 34 ].
The authors formulate their hypothesis on the basis of the ability of Rhizopus species to live with endosymbiotic toxin-producing bacteria [ 35 ] and of the existing link between emergence of mucormycosis and the increased drug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria seen in the recent decades. Later on, both the
Mucorales asexual reproduction of researchers demonstrated that endosymbiotic toxin-producing bacteria were not essential for the pathogenesis of mucormycosis [ 3637 ].
Other potential virulence factors of Mucorales could be proteolytic, lipolytic, Mucorales asexual reproduction glycosidic enzymes as well as metabolites like alkaloids or mycotoxins as agroclavine.
However, their direct involvement in human cases of mucormycosis has been still to be documented [ 3 ]. Histology and culture are still
Mucorales asexual reproduction most important diagnostic approaches for mucormycosis because of the lacking of molecular diagnosis methods standardized or commercially available.
Timely diagnosis of invasive mucormycosis is essential due to the rapid progression of the disease, and because signs and symptoms of the infection could mimic other invasive fungal infections. Tissue biopsies are the clinical specimens of choice and should Mucorales asexual reproduction submitted to histopathological and microbiological examination.
When cultures are performed, it should be remembered that slicing rather than grinding of the samples should Mucorales asexual reproduction adopted, because grinding result in the loss of viability due to the coenocytic characteristics of the Mucorales asexual reproduction. Microscopic detection of aseptate or pauciseptate hyphae with a large diameter and wide branching angles is suggestive of mucormycosis Figure 1.
Histopathological examination of the infected tissues reveals inflammatory response, often entirely filled with neutrophils, invasion of arterial and venous walls angioinvasion with subsequent infarction, and perineural invasion [ 31 ].
Invasive mucormycosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with impaired immune defence and severe Mucorales asexual reproduction diseases. In immunocompromised or debilitated patients, the disease is rapidly progressive, refractory to antifungal therapy, and often cause of death. Several characteristics of Mucorales have been involved in the pathogenesis of the infection as potential virulence factors, but a trait that can be considered a specific determinant of virulence has not been defined yet.
Angioinvasion, neurotropism, and iron uptake are common characteristics of Mucorales that trigger diseases in humans. Many open issues remain to be clarified on the interaction between members of the Mucorales order and the host immune response. Different therapeutic approaches, especially the combination therapy, seem to have a promising impact on the clinical outcome of this infection.
However, the development of the most severe forms of mucormycosis and the subsequent outcome is strictly dependent on the efficiency of the host immune system.
International Journal of Microbiology. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Mucorales have been increasingly reported as cause of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised subjects, particularly in patients with haematological malignancies or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus Mucorales asexual reproduction in those under deferoxamine treatment or undergoing dialysis.
Introduction The Mucoraleswhich is the core group of the traditional Zygomycota [ 1 — 3 ], have been recently reclassified into the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Glomeromycota phylum of the kingdom Fungi Mucorales asexual reproduction 4 ]. Epidemiology A few members of Mucorales asexual reproduction Mucorales Table 1 are able to grow in human tissues causing a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. Agents a of mucormycosis belonging to Mucorales order of the Glomeromycota phylum.
View at Google Scholar C. View at Google Scholar A. View at Google Scholar E. View at Google Scholar N. Van Cutsem et al. View at Google Scholar. Mucorales have been increasingly reported as cause of invasive with the formation of zygospores, and asexual reproduction with nonmotile.
Mucorales asexual reproduction, order Mucorales. It is seen in patients class Zygomycetes consists of aseptate hyaline molds that reproduce by both sexual and asexual means.
The Mucorales is Mucorales asexual reproduction largest and best studied order of zygomycete fungi. Members of this order Asexual reproduction often occurs continuously. In heterothallic.
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Fungi Zygomycota Mucor Life Cycle
- The Mucorales is the largest and best studied order of...
- The Mucorales is the largest and best studied order of zygomycete fungi.
- The importance of zygospores for reproduction and distribution compared to the asexual...
- Mucorales have been increasingly reported as cause of invasive with the formation of zygospores, and...
Fungi Zygomycota Mucor Life Cycle
To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Microbiology, enter your email address in the box below. Pascal 36, Milan, Italy. This is an open access article distributed beneath the waves the Creative Commons Attribution Approve , which permits unrestricted exercise, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original moil is properly cited.
Mucorales must been increasingly reported as source of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised subjects, particularly in patients with haematological malignancies or riotous diabetes mellitus and in those under deferoxamine treatment or undergoing dialysis.
The disease often leads to a fatal outcome, but the pathogenesis of the infection is still poorly understood as well as the role of specific virulence determinants and the interaction with the host insusceptible system. Members of the peace Mucorales are responsible of all but all cases of invasive mucormycoses, the majority of the etiological agents belonging to the Mucoraceae family. Mucorales are able to produce various proteins and metabolic products toxic to animals and humans, but the pathogenic r�le of these potential virulence factors is unknown.
The availability of free iron in plasma and tissues is believed to be crucial for the pathogenesis of these mycoses. Vascular invasion and neurotropism are considered common pathogenic features of invasive mucormycoses.
The Mucorales , which is the core group of the conventional Zygomycota [ 1 — 3 ], have been recently reclassified into the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Glomeromycota phylum of the kingdom Fungi [ 4 ].
This new classification does not include Zygomycota, because the authors consider the phylum polyphyletic, undoubtedly the name zygomycosis, which encompassed infections caused by members of Mucorales and Entomophthorales , has become obsolete [ 4 ]. The Mucorales are characterized nearby aseptate coenocytic hyaline hyphae, genital reproduction with the formation of zygospores, and asexual reproduction with nonmotile sporangiospores.
In this article we will converse about about: Occurrence of Mucorales 2. Somatic Structures of Mucorales 3. This order is by overdo the largest and includes nearby species which are placed underneath 45 genera.
They are chiefly terrestrial saprophytes. A few species are parasitic on plants and animals. The saprophytic species are commonly found on moist, decaying, organic matter such as horse-apples or decaying plant or fleshly matter rich in starch and sugars. The thallus is a well-developed, branched mycelium which is freely exposed to air.
In some species it produces rhizoidal hyphae at the points of contact with a hard extrinsically. Ultrastructurally the hyphal protoplast, over the nuclei, contains mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Dictyosomes consisting of stacks of cisternae and centrioles are away.
How should I respond to her lack of response?Zygomycetes, order Mucorales. It is seen in patients class Zygomycetes consists of aseptate hyaline molds that reproduce by both sexual and asexual means. in which they germinate to repeat this asexual reproductive cycle. Pilobolus also reproduces sexually in a manner similar to that of other Mucorales. Pilobolus is..
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- Reproduction in Mucorales: Asexual Reproduction in Mucorales: It takes place by means of non-motile spores (sporangiospores) which are produced in large.
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- Mucorales: fungus: Annotated classification: Order Mucorales (pin molds) coenocytic mycelium; asexual reproduction by formation of sporangiospores;.
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Mucorales: Occurrence and Reproduction...
Abstract Mucorales have been increasingly reported as cause of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised subjects, particularly in patients with haematological malignancies or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and in those under deferoxamine treatment or undergoing dialysis. Wrzosek , 3 G. Traditional classification in Mucorales was done, as in all Eumycetes , mainly by using morphological characters. A gene for carotene cleavage required for pheromone biosynthesis and carotene regulation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus.
This genus also was supposed to include both species of Lentamyces. At maturity the wall ruptures at preformed sutures to release sporangiospores with hyaline, hair-like polar appendages representing a synapomorphy of this family.
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